Sunday, October 13, 2013

Air Pollution From Ships - Acid Rain

Emissions from shipping contribute significantly to the concentrations and fallout of harmful air pollutants in Europe.There are however technical means by which these pollutants could be cut by as much as 80–90 per cent, and very cost-effectively compared to achieving similar results by taking further measures for land-based sources.Such reductions are needed to protect health and the environment, and to develop shipping as a more sustainable mode of transport.While pollutant emissions from land-based sources are gradually coming down, those from shipping show a continuous increase.The emissions from ships engaged in international
trade in the seas surrounding Europe – the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the north-eastern part of the Atlantic, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea – were estimated at 2.3 million tonnes of sulphur dioxide (SO2), 3.3 million tonnes of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and 250,000 tonnes of fine particles (PM) .Under current legislation, it is expected that shipping emissions of SO2 and NOx will increase by 40–50 per cent up to 2020, as compared to 2000. In both cases, by 2020 the emissions from international shipping around Europe are expected to equal or even surpass the total from all land-based sources in the 27 EU member states combined.It should be noted that these figures, high as they are, refer only to ships in international trade. They do not include emissions from shipping in countries’ internal waterways or from ships plying harbours in the same country, which are given in the domestic statistics of each country.

Global emissions
With no change in international regulations, an Expert Group to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) predicted in autumn 2007 that today’s total of 369 million tonnes of marine fuel consumption would rise to 486 million tonnes by 2020, of which 382 would be heavy fuel oil and 104 would be distillates.Annual SO2 emissions from ships were estimated at 16.2 million tonnes in 2006, rising to 22.7 million tonnes in 2020 under the “business-as-usual” scenario. Emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) from ships were estimated at 1,120 million tonnes per year, rising to 1,475 million tonnes in 2020.

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