Friday, December 11, 2009

How does acid rain affect metals?

Although the effects of acid deposition on forest and aquatic ecosystems are much greater, acid rain definitely has an effect on metals. The effect of acid deposition is basically the effect any acid has on metal: it tends to corrode it. Corrosion is the electrochemical degradation of a material. That means that as the metal breaks down, it loses electrons to become a different form . In a typical corrosion reaction, solid iron (Fe) loses electrons to become a soluble form:

Fe(s) --> Fe2+(in solution) + electrons

These electrons are taken up by oxygen (O2), which reacts with hydrogen ions (H+) to form water:

O2 + H+ + electrons --> H2O

The overall reaction (unbalanced) looks something like this:

Fe(s) + O2 + H+ --> Fe2+ + H20

To get this reaction to run you need three things: iron, oxygen and acid (to provide the H+). Normally, the H+ can come from the acid that forms naturally as CO2 dissolves in water. However, acid rain provides a lot more H+ (over a hundred times more in many cases) this makes it much easier for the reaction to run because there is plenty of everything needed. Once the iron is in solution it can react further to form iron oxide, which is also known as rust. The result of all this chemistry is that acid deposition can corrode bronze (which is mostly copper), iron, steel (which is mostly iron), and copper much more quickly than under natural conditions. Acid rain has even been seen to damage metallic auto paint.

One experiment you might do to test these ideas would be to expose metals to acid rain. Some researchers in Britain did exactly that, in what was called the National Materials Exposure Program. They placed many different types of metals and rocks (which are also vulnerable to damage) outdoors at sites all over the country and very carefully measured the changes that occurred in size, weight, surface composition, etc. Technically, this experiment tested the effects of air pollution in general but you would expect a significant portion of that effect to be due to acid deposition. In a preliminary report I was able to track down, they found that “mild steel” was corroded the most, followed by galvanized steel, copper and then aluminum, which was hardly affected. It is worth pointing out that all these reactions are still pretty slow – it can take years for visible effects to accumulate. Some rocks, like limestone (which dissolves in acid), are damaged more quickly – huge amounts of damage to sculptures and buildings have occurred throughout areas affected by acid rain.

Another effect acid deposition has on metals occurs in the soils of forests. The changes in pH (one measure of acidity), which occur as a result of prolonged acid deposition, increase the mobility of some metals in the soil. This means that toxic forms of metals like aluminum, copper and mercury can leach into rivers and streams where they might hurt aquatic life or even get into drinking water.

Harmful Effects of Acid Rain

Acid rain is more acidic than normal rain and forms through a complex process of chemical reactions involving air pollution. The two most importantpollutants that contribute to the formation of acid rain are nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide, which react with moisture in the atmosphere to form nitric and sulfuric acid.

The sulfur and nitrogen compounds that contribute to acid rain primarily come from anthropogenic sources, such as industries, utilities, automobiles and other forms of transportation. Pollutants that contribute to acid rain may be carried hundreds of miles before being deposited on the earth. Because of this, it is sometimes difficult to determine the specific sources of these acid rain pollutants.

Acid rain can harm forests and crops, damage bodies of water, and contribute to the damage of statues and buildings. Researchers are considering the possible effects of acid rain on human heath. These acidic pollutants can be deposited through rain, snow, fog, dew, or sleet. Large quantities can also be deposited in a dry form through dust.


1) Vocabulary

a) acid
b) solution
c) acetic acid
d) acid rain
e) nitrogen oxide
f) sulfur dioxide
g) sulfuric acid
h) nitric acid
i) pH

2) Activities

a) Discuss acids, bases, pH, and acid deposition.

b) Before activity, make predictions. If vinegar contains acid, then how will some items placed in vinegar change? If these items were placed in water, would they change in the same ways as in vinegar?

c) Pour vinegar in one container. Place an eggshell piece, a leaf, and a paper clip in the container. Put the lid on the container.

d) Pour water in the other container. Place an eggshell, a leaf, and a paper clip in this container. Put the lid on the container.

e) Let the two sealed containers sit overnight.

f) Remove the container lids. Observe any changes that took place in the two containers.Write down observations.

g) Results—In the container of water, the items will not show noticeable changes. In the container of vinegar, the eggshell will be soft, the leaf will have brown spots on it, and the paperclip will not show a noticeable change. This activity indicates that acidic solutions can be harmful.

Solutions For Acid Rain

People have heard about the largest acid rain, largely from coal as a threat with the wind in the forest discussed fired power plants. Most acid rain, sulfur dioxide (SO2), coal, oil or gas that is a byproduct of sulfur caused tinged with. Because sulfur is a common stimulating factor, these fossil fuels is almost impossible to find that the sulfur deposits are not included. When sulfur dioxide is emitted as these fuels are burned, it enters the atmosphere and reacts with water. The reaction results of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), he gives the name of that acid rain.

Not a recent problem

The biggest part of the country shifted to low sulfur burning fossil fuels such as low sulfur coal. Since acid rain has not been in the news recently, this open threat to eclipse that has passed by and is in fact 90 of 1980 and has made a significant impact on the problem can put in place in the events . From fossil fuel power plants to pass the exam with the wind as the rain is still acidic.

As one can see, there's a significant rainfall acidity, particularly in the Great Lakes region was celebrating primary years. He said, "The pH" clean, natural rainfall is about 5.6, 3.0 as an indication of vinegar around the stands. Given that the region still quite acidic rain and able to cause significant ecological issues.

Effect of sulfur dioxide

It has reacted in past environments, sulfur dioxide as acid rain falls on the earth. Acid rain one seems the most obvious impact is that we can see. Normal suitable plant life - rain is pH and acid rain in areas not well managed will die. Europe's forests have been devastated by acid rain. Figure 3 is a region in Germany's Black Forest where significant tree - dead - from acid rain had stopped.

Effect can be seen that when more is not important. When acid rain, lakes, rivers and river water pH changes. Lakes have supported life once they fall of the array can not acidified. Crayfish, freshwater, and before departure as clams and muscles of these animals are removed from the food chain, as others begin to die well. Lakes Prone to die in less affluent areas of limestone, the limestone as dislikes acid may defuse, not to where the granite is the natural buffer and thus show the crisis is already common in lakes.

In addition, as populations are aquatic animals that rely on wetlands for food and defense budget are also affected. Fish and other areas Frogs, snails and other sea birds and land mammals living in the food people travel from one generation off to die next.

We already solved? What's more is that possible?

1980 and one in 90 working solution was made for high stack or chimneys. This effectively put into the atmosphere and acid rain and sulfur greater gone with the wind. It is clear that the only problem quickly grew - were never solved. In fact in 1988, Britain's Prince Charles said the belief: "Our responsibility in exporting our problems do not lie
Abroad. "

So although this story of silence need not concluding. There new technologies that are employed in power plants across the mortal world. One such technique is flue gas desulphurization or FSD, essentially removing sulfur dioxide from burning gases as they grow flue chimney. Planned to meet three main ways FSD wet-scrubbing, dry scrubbing, and injections. The two most used in wet and dry scrubbing methods, marble or lime solution as gases rise through a chimney is spraying. The lime reacts with SO2 and result 'compounds' below Chimney's rain should be collected on.

There emerging technologies that can cross the efficacy of lime scrubbing. Power plants in China and Poland Chendu new technique in Pomorzany power plant flue gases with electrons and then ammonia is open to destruction is established. Leave feedback for this little United Nations said that the fire escape and SO2 addition, he will have a similar response shows .Nitrous oxide (NOx) reduction. Though still in early stages of testing, it is expected that a contingent offer the world's problem is that Europe and North America such as acid rain, plagued, as these emerging economies expand and development can be avoided can lead the clean energy plants is the 21st century.

Acid rain's effect on plants and wildlife

Acid rain effects on plants and animals

Almost everyone has heard about acid rain and knows that it's a bad thing. But what actually is? What is its effect on plants, animals, people, what else can this problem be solved?

Term "acid rain does not give true nature of the problem because scientists term" acid rain use. Because this acid, is formed as a withdrawal can cause pollution of the earth, not just as a solid or a gas and is in the rainy season based on rain, fog or snow as low can come. And the wet form 'is known as acid rain. "


Some major industries, as well as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions from vehicles has increased. Changes in emissions Sulfates and nitrates
Under the influence of heat and humidity, and sulfuric and nitric acid, the acid rain will come down as a convert.

Generally, 2 to 3% between coal is sulfur, and when it is burned, the sulfur release into the atmosphere. Power companies and other industries, high sulfur dioxide emission coal burned. Other industries that process copper, zinc and nickel ore with respect to sulfides in the sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere will increase.

Nitrogen oxide air emissions, vehicles and other places where fossil fuels are burned are the main source. Forest fires, often caused by people intentionally or unintentionally, is a source of pollution.

Naturally, these volcanoes, electricity, or biological decay in the incident, also leads to an increase in air pollutants, but not much can be done about these reasons. However, 90% in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions by about 95% atmospheric man - making source.

Acid rain problem is not new. It was the first time in 17 did. Century, when people saw the impact of industrialization on plants and animals. Already in the 1872 Scottish chemist, Robert Angus Smith, one book, "Air and Rain: the beginning of chemical climatology is written," in which the word "acid rain" and the name has remained. Problem in the 1960s when fishermen in the amount of fish in lakes of North America and Europe since seen rapid decline has not changed.

Acid rain did not ruin where he is a local issue. Atmospheric emissions and long-distance travel for many days can on air and again before the season as acid rain. Problem in an industrial area, the surrounding forests and lakes, or further away can lead to acid rain. It is estimated that acid rain, which is already in Canada, the United States due to pollution in the United States could generate nearly 50%, in Norway and in England felt the impact of pollutants industries.

If any pollution was still angry, was rain. Natural rainfall is about pH of 6.0. This is due to the effect of carbon dioxide in the air combines with water as carbonic acid. The effect of low, because it is in the soil such as limestone is neutralized by alkaline material. However, other emissions, the fact that the rain water pH 5.5 and at this level may fall below the acid rain are going to have considered. Now the rain acidity of soil can not neutralize. In some places, acidification is so serious that the pH drops to about 4.0. In rare cases, with pH of about 2 has been reported from acid rain - 2.5.

The impact of acid rain on plants.

Both natural vegetation and crops affected by acid rain. The roots of acid rain, the plants, or are damaged by blocking the development of death. Soil nutrients, are destroyed by acid. Useful microbes, nutrients from organic matter battered, killed in the ground, so less nutrients are available to plants. Acid rain damages plants makes plant leaves and the waxy layer on the possibility of diseases falls. The cumulative effect means that even if such strong winds and heavy rains plant or as a short dry season leaves him alive, to be very weak and climate conditions. Plant germination and publicity is also hampered by the effects of acid rain.

Acid rain effects on aquatic life

The impact of acid rain, mercury and aluminum from soil and rocks are washed out due to such harmful elements, and aquatic life in lakes may be affected will be. Warning signs were posted in many lakes, fish that were eating about the dangers of mercury poisoning in the call. A natural ability to neutralize the acidity of rain water as the Earth, within a specified period, as well as lakes and the sea is to some extent nullify the effect of acid rain. However, since increasing acid, natural systems are no longer able to cope. When they set the water is acidic pH. PH value of 5.5 obtained, plankton, insects since, and seem to die from certain cancers. PH of about 5.0 in the fish stock to start dying. When pH is below 5.0 all the fish died, and the lake bottom is covered with excavated material. Every year during the spring snow melt, the frozen lakes of acid there is a sudden increase in acidity is suddenly deposited in them. The "acid shock" aquatic life, or results in death of puppy breeding stops.

Impact on animals and birds.

All living organisms are interdependent. When one lives, depend on other species that has killed them, he will not be affected. One animal in the food chain will not be affected. Animals and birds such waterfowl or beavers, for which food sources or habitat are dependent on water, and start to die. Suffering due to the effects of acid rain, food for animals and plants depend on their start. Birds and other animals due to loss of habitats, also started rotting Tree Flat.

Impact on people

Food supply for mankind depends on plants and animals. Acid rain, all the fish in some lakes have been eliminated. Fish and other aquatic organisms living among them on the people's livelihood are suffering. Consumption of fish that are contaminated with mercury can cause serious health problems. Plants and animals as food sources in addition to damages, the food is acid rain, the water we drink, the air we breathe together. Because these are affected directly asthmatics and children. Municipal water supply treated as a rule, the effects of acid rain and thus less city dwellers can not, is ineffective suffer from directly acidified drinking water. But in rural areas, the lakes, rivers and wells will affect their health depends on acid rain. Lead and copper in acidic water harmful elements such as water leached through the pipes is in progress. Aluminum, which easily compared to Alzheimer's disease as acid rain, the rain has become pure. Treatment of urban water supply can not remove elements such as aluminum, and is a serious problem in many cities.

Other effects

All organisms, whether plants or animals, whether living on land or water or trees, either directly or indirectly affected by acid rain. Even the buildings, bridges and other structures are affected. Buildings and vehicles in cities rushed to open the color paint is fading effects due to acid rain. Taj Mahal in India, the Washington Monument across the world of big buildings acid rain, war, fracture damage, and discoloration of structures. In Europe, such as in Greece Acropolis and Italian Renaissance architecture, had to face and see many churches and cathedrals loss. Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico destroyed, and in places in South America, ancient Mayan pyramids are acid rain. Ancient murals and inscriptions at the temple, centuries before the war now left for stronger signals. Besides, books, manuscripts, paintings and sculptures are in museums and libraries, as influenced by air ventilation system can eliminate acid particles are circulating in the building is not. In some parts of Poland the necessary facilities to run slowly, as the title can be attributed heavily damaged by acid rain has eroded.


The bottom line is that everything on earth are affected by this issue and the good news is that something is being solved it. Environmental pressure groups
Destruction due to acid rain and public impact of strong increases. Governments around the world is ready to tackle this problem is planned.

Lakes, which are highly acidic lime such as large quantities of alkaline substances can clear in a process called liming treatment. Worked in many places, however, it was not possible where a big lake, so the process is not economically viable, or other lakes where the silence rate is too large sea water, the lake again is acidifies.

Prevention is the best solution seems. To this end, environmental regulations limit the amount of emissions released into the atmosphere has been adopted. Various industries have scrubbers threw their chimneys, less than the amount of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere. Specially designed to ensure that the catalyst that harmful gases from car tailpipes are providing are used. Some industries have used coal as fuel use and to wash the sulfur thus reducing the amount of the volume of emissions from coal have started earlier. Coal with low sulfur content also use reduces the problem.

We as human impact of this problem, several steps can be taken away. Use of vehicles in the amount of emission reduction because of our vehicles are few. When it is absolutely necessary if you do not use the car. At a distance, walking or using bicycles to get to try. It not only protect the environment but your health will improve. If the distance is larger, try using public transport. If you use your car to someone else with a carpool and share Try to form your vehicle. Make sure your car properly view and equipped with catalytic converters to lower emissions.

Reduce electricity use. Lights and other electrical appliances when not needed to stop. Deputy on TV, VCR, microwave oven or on a music system if needed. She changed her.

To reduce electricity consumption, the amount of coal burned at power generation and thus reducing the amount of pollution. This is true even if your current company does not use coal for power generation, but some other, environmentally friendly way. This is because power is saved you can now be used elsewhere and thus also of nature.

The problem with other people talk about. Increasing awareness in a way to ensure things are solutions to this global problem. Find out what fuels for power generation is determined by your electricity company. If the coal, the use those methods to eliminate the problem of sulfur emissions is not asking. Coal washing, or to use coal with low sulfur content is being used and so expensive for some companies try to avoid them. If you have a utility that shows concern over environmental and Switch option.

Acid Rain - Air Pollution

Acid rain is produced by the burning of fossil fuels. It is formed when emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen and oxidants to form various acidic compounds. These compounds then fall to the ground in either wet or dry form.

Acid rain acidifies lakes and streams and contributes to damage of trees at high elevations. Hundreds of lakes in the Adirondacks have become too acidic to support sensitive fish species. In addition, acid rain accelerates the decay of paints and buildings.

Electric power plants account for about 70 percent of sulfur dioxide emissions about 30 percent of nitrogen oxides emissions. Cars, trucks and buses also are major sources of nitrogen oxides.

Acid Rain Pollution

Acid rain has generated a very slow reaction in the beginning. Nowadays, as people recognize the distressing effects of acid rain on animals and plants, their reaction is one of unease By showing evidence of animals that died from a direct result of acid rain, scientists started getting some attention. The first reaction from the general public was to mistake the big manufacturers for acid rain. We now know that a lot of our daily gestures are causal factors to acid rain.

Manufacturers, after being pressured by governments in place, started complying to rules and regulations deliberate to decrease acid rain. This way, they alert on reducing their sulfur emissions, a major cause of acid rain. They also accepted to install filters to reduce the liberation of polluting gases in the atmosphere. These gases are forced to penetrate a tube full of lime and water. The interaction of the sulfur gas with the lime results in calcium sulfate being produced. Industries are then faced with a second problem: how do they get rid of the calcium sulfate that is created? This solution is only one being studied and has proven to be time overriding and pretty expensive.

We are experiencing a rapid increase in the level of acid rain and major changes need to be undertaken right away. The rise in the level of acid rain in some areas can be as much as 70% above normal levels. These higher levels of acid rain have proven to be very hurtful to the environment. Man, is too, affected by the increased level of acid rain and the rate of respiratory problems is concerning in areas where acid rain is largest In nature, forests, trees, lakes, animals, and plants also suffer greatly from the destroy of acid rain.

Winds have the power to bring sulfur dioxide miles away thus distribution the areas where acid rain causes problems. Since man cannot control wind, the only possible solution is to lower the emission of such pollutants as sulfur dioxide.

Acid rain is a serious threat to man and his environment and only a constant and serious effort will prove successful. Many rules and regulations have been passed in that direction. It is everyone’s dependability to make sure they are respected.

What are the Causes of Acid Rain?

Nitrogen oxides, or NOx and sulfur dioxide, or SO2, two main sources of acid rain. Sulfur dioxide, a monochrome gas that is emitted as a by burning of fossil fuels containing sulfur-containing products are burned. Various industrial processes of the gas, by such crude oil, utility plants and iron and steel plants are produced as a resource. Natural resources, environment and disaster results in sulfur dioxide as plants, plankton, sea spray, rotting continues, and volcanoes, which is about 10% of all emissions of sulfur dioxide can. Full on, industrial ignition emissions of sulfur dioxide for 69.4% of environment and vehicle traffic is conscientious for approximately 3.7%.

Other chemical nitric oxide, acid rain, which is included. A compound, nitrogen and oxygen atoms in each level is known as nitrogen oxides. For example, nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide. Extremely high temperature firings to integrate these gases are in the process, for example, utility plants and automobile production, and chemical industries, such as construction of fertilizers. Five percent nitrogen by natural processes such as electricity emit oxides, volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and the effect of soil bacteria. Industrial emissions are 32% and 43% is responsible for vehicle transport process.

Nitrogen oxides, which is a noxious gas attack on covering per cent of them damaged by the respiratory system, thus the possibility of respiratory diseases is increasing. This atmospheric ozone layer and cause smog is a factor for damage. If acid rain is nitrogen oxide from the rain can be the original location.

What are the effects of acid rain?

Acid rain effects on plants: acid soil and poison plants and trees, such aluminum, which are absorbed by roots in the soil as rain dissolved toxic substance seeps. Acid rain also is beneficial natural resources and nutrients in the soil, the plants and trees have been washed first one to work with them have a chance to grow.

If this acid rain often, it leaves a waxy caring coating is broken. If this protective layer is lost on leaves, a plant disease is likely to lead it. If leaf damage, a sufficient amount of food your plant's capability to continue production loses is not healthy. Once weakened, Plant cold weather, insects and diseases that may cause his death is likely.

Acid rain effects on aquatic life: besides work, acid rains also negatively affect aquatic organisms. High amounts of nutrients in a Sulfuric Acid capacity of fish, take salt and oxygen affects. As far as freshwater fish is concerned, so that they survive in the tissues ability to maintain a balance between mineral and salt is needed. Acid molecules of mucus to form in their gill, which prevents them enough oxygen. In addition, acid pH, which is an imbalance of salt in fish tissue, will be less.

In addition, pH changes in the fish's ability to do keep your calcium levels affect. Affects the reproductive capacity of the fish, because eggs are too fragile or brittle. Calcium deficiency also leads to weak bones and warped spines.

Effects of acid rain on man - made object that harm natural ecosystems, acid rain damage to man made structure and content addition. For example, acid rain, sandstone, limestone and marble are. It corrodes and ceramics, textiles, dyes and metals. Rubber and leather, when in contact with acid rain bad. Monuments and stone carvings, if their properties are in contact with acid rain start to lose.

Acid rain effects on people: acid rain, particularly negative affect human health. Informed of our atmosphere and the ability to hurt the soil, where we eat, has become. Acid rain, chemical compounds, toxic metals from which they naturally are different. While toxic metals can be perilous but in combination with other elements as they exist, until then they are not harmful. After acid rain causes the poisoned metal release, drinking water and animals and plants they can infiltrate into the source of food as a human. Polluted food in children or serious brain damage or nerve damage can result in death. Scientists suspect that aluminum, a toxic metal is affected by acid rain, is associated with Alzheimer's disease.

Another harmful effect of acid rain on humans because of respiratory disease.
Nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emissions that ear, nose and eye frustration headaches, asthma and respiratory diseases as a cause of cough. Acid rain, people who suffer from asthma or breathing difficulty is particularly harmful for. Are damaged, in fact, even in healthy people, lungs from air pollutants in acidity.